Chapter 13 The Most Fragrant Roses for Your Garden
Chapter 14 Top 10 Best Heat Tolerant Roses to Grow
Chapter 15 How to Plant Bare Root Roses
Chapter 16 Heirloom Roses for Today’s Garden
Four Fail-Proof Methods to Propagate Roses
At some point in your rose growing experiences you may wish to try your hand at experimenting with propagation to expand your rose collection. My first foray into plant propagation was about 35 years ago, when my older sister got married. She carried red stem roses that were perfect as she was that day. My grandmother told me that day to put her flowers in a vase of water for two weeks, than after that prepare a the ground out of the sun, plant the rose stems and place an old aquarium on top of the stems and wait. I planted in May and in November I had rose plants, and I was hooked on starting own my roses. For the amateur gardener; propagation by division, cuttings, seeds or layering will produce some very satisfactory results. I have tried them all. Layering is by far the easiest, but only works well with certain types of roses such as climbers or Bourbon or Hybrid Musk roses. From these four methods taking cuttings is a particularly easy and the quickest way to increase your rose stock.
1. How to propagate roses by cuttings Most roses that are purchased commercially have been bud grafted onto selected pre-prepared rootstocks. The plants that are created from cuttings are called own root roses because they grow on their own roots and are not grafted onto a rootstock. The roses that seem to root most easily are miniatures, ramblers and roses that are closely related to their species. Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are a bit more challenging to root but nonetheless you may be quite surprised at your success! The lengthy time period that it takes a Hybrid Tea to root is one reason they are not often found commercially on their own roots. I started a Hybrid Tea in February and it rooted fast and I planted it in the garden in May. In June it bloomed, here is a picture of the little bush. This method for rooting cuttings is quite simple and has a good success rate. In late summer or early autumn, select a healthy cane of approximately one to two feet in length and cut it off just above an outward facing bud. Remove all leaves and twigs. You can also carefully remove all the thorns to make handling easier. Cut the remaining cane into lengths of 6 to 9 pieces with the bottom of each piece being as close to a leaf node as possible. For miniature roses you will only need 2”to 4”inch cuttings. At this point, you may wish to use a rooting hormone. You can either use one commercially available or you can make your own by chopping up willow twigs and soaking them in a bucket of water overnight. If you use willow water, then dip the ends of the cutting in the water and let sit overnight. I use cinnamon powder, it works well. Plant each cutting in a separate little pot filled with good quality potting soil mixed with perlite, adding a bit of sand in the bottom of the hole for drainage. Make sure that at least 2/3 of the cutting is under the soil. Mist the cutting and the soil and place a plastic bag over the pot and secure. Keep your cutting outside, in a brightly lit but sheltered spot. Make sure that you protect your young plant from the direct heat of the sun. Check the pot periodically to make sure that your cutting is moist but not wet. Usually within a month your cutting will have taken root. Alternatively, you may plant the cuttings directly outside in the garden in a well prepared spot that is shielded from the midday sun. Place a glass jar or liter pop bottle on top of cuttings (greenhouse effect) buds should appear the following spring. If you are fortunate, they should be well rooted by the following autumn at which time you can carefully lift and replant them in its permanent location. For those that live in areas of severe winter weather, you may wish to experiment with softwood cuttings rather than hardwood cuttings. Using the same method as outlined above, simply choose a mature side shoot that is still green. Trim off all soft growth and cut into 4 pieces rather than 9 pieces. Softwood cuttings should be planted in plastic covered pots and kept in a frost-free environment until the following spring, when you can plant them outside. 2. How to propagate roses by Layering Simple layering can be accomplished by bending a low growing, flexible stem to the ground. Cover part of it with soil, leaving the remaining 6 to 12 inches above the soil. Bend the tip into a vertical position and stake in place (Figure 1). The sharp bend will often induce rooting, but wounding the lower side of the bent branch may help also. Simple layering can be done on most plants with low-growing branches. Examples of plants propagated by simple layering include climbing roses, forsythia, rhododendron, honeysuckle, boxwood, azalea, and wax myrtle. Simple layering can be done in early spring using a dormant branch, or in late summer using a mature branch. Periodically check for adequate moisture and for the formation of roots. It may take one or more seasons before the layer is ready to be removed for transplanting. Mine are usually ready in 6 months. Tip layering is quite similar to simple layering. Dig a hole 3 to 4 inches deep. Insert the tip of a current season’s shoot and cover it with soil. The tip grows downward first, then bends sharply and grows upward. Roots form at the bend. The re-curved tip becomes a new plant (Figure 2). Remove the tip layer and plant it in late fall or early spring. Examples of plants propagated by tip layering include purple and black raspberries, and trailing blackberries.
Mound (stool) layering is useful with heavy-stemmed, closely branched shrubs and rootstocks of tree fruits. Cut the plant back to 1 inch above the soil surface in the dormant season. Dormant buds will produce new shoots in the spring. Mound soil over the new shoots as they grow (Figure 4). Roots will develop at the bases of the young shoots. Remove the layers in the dormant season. Mound layering works well on apple rootstocks, spirea, quince, daphne, magnolia, and cotoneaster.
Air Layering is one of the easiest, most carefree and effective method of propagating a rose. I've been using this method on roses and when done correctly at the right time, you can achieve a 100% success. Though some roses take longer to root, most will root between 3 weeks to 8 weeks. Most of the ones I worked on rooted in 3 weeks and some took longer. The best time to air layer a rose is in springtime after its first bloom. That is when they are growing actively. Rooting roses is much easier during their active growing season. Choose a succulent stem or cane from a healthy plant that has produced a flower. This is an indication that the stem is matured enough for rooting. Also important is pampering the mother plant you want to air layer to encourage a vigorous growth and speed up the rooting process. After the rooting medium is filled with roots, sever the stem below the medium and pot the layer. The new plant will usually require some pampering until the root system becomes more developed. Provide shade and adequate moisture until the plant is well established Things you'll need: A sharp knife or razor blade (i use a box cutter knife), Twist ties"6X"6 transparent plastic sheet (A cut Ziploc plastic bag will do), Strapping Tape, Rootone Rooting Hormone w/ fungicide (optional), A small artists' brush (when using rooting hormone). 3. How to Propagate Roses Using Potatoes Pioneer women on the Oregon Trail took cuttings of their favorite rose plants, stuck into potatoes, across the plains to plant around their new homes. They used a simple method of propagating roses that still works today. You can expand your rose garden by propagating cuttings.
Rose propagation using potatoes requires rose cuttings, 6- to 8-inch pieces of rose stem. The rose cuttings root well in the potato base because the potato provides moisture and nutrients to the newly growing roots. The rose may even enter into a symbiotic relationship with the potato: information on vegetative propagation from the University of North Dakota shows tomatoes grafted onto potatoes in which both plants thrive. Although a soft-wood rose cutting should not require it, you may dip the cutting in rooting hormone or a willow-wood infusion prior to inserting it into the potato. Cut a piece of rose bush stem 6 to 8 inches long with a sharp, clean knife or pruning shears. This should be done in winter when the blooms have wilted and hips are forming. If collecting multiple cuttings, keep them in the shade until you are ready to begin the next step. Cut off the spent blooms, hips and lower leaves. Do not cut the nodes, or eyes, above the leaves. Fill the nursery pot 1/3 full with potting soil and place on a plate or drainage pan. Punch a hole 3 inches deep into a healthy potato using a screwdriver. Insert the bottom end of the cutting into the potato hole.
Place inside the nursery pot and cover with soil so that about 3 inches of the cutting sticks out. Place in indirect sunlight and keep surrounding soil moist but well drained for two months. Transplant into a permanent place outdoors in the spring. 4. How to Propagate Roses Using Seeds Propagating roses by seeds is very but takes rewarding patience because it takes time to see the fruitage of your loving labor. So having said that I’m going to share with you the Judy fast method. BUY YOUR SEEDS! It is not worth your time or effort to pollinate and harvest your own hips. When your seeds arrive- Place in a jar you have ready and soak in straight 3%Hydrogen peroxide solution for 6-12 hours. Place the jar in the refrigerator. In a 1-cup measuring cup, add 1 tablespoon of hydrogen peroxide. Fill cup the rest of the way with water. Use this mixture to add moisture to the soil. Soil should be damp; if it's too wet it will rot the seeds. If it's too dry it will inhibit germination. Place soil in small trays. Remove seeds from refrigerator and pot in soil mixture. Place each pot in a zip lock bag and refrigerate. Wait 3 months. When looking for germination, you will see a single root-tip breaking through the seed. If you see lots of fuzzy little roots, its mold (don't worry). There's a distinct difference. If you need to add water to your planting mix, use the water-hydrogen peroxide mix. Water the seedling with the water-hydrogen peroxide mixture, don't over/under water. You can lightly fertilize with a weak water-soluble fertilizer (Miracle grow type stuff) when they get their second leaves. 25% regular dose I think. Repeat blooming roses bloom after about 2 months. Once blooming roses bloom after about 2-3 years.
10 Must Have Rare Climbing Roses
Climbing roses not only give you more bangs for your buck, but they add dimension, form and interest to your cottage garden. The big box stores unfortunately do not carry these multi floral varieties. All those listed here are double, repeat blooming and delightfully fragrant, and the best feature is, and they are all in my garden. These roses are all hardy and vigorous growers, even novice gardeners can grow these. Abraham Darby bears large, deeply cupped blooms in shades of pink, apricot and yellow and, in spite of their size, they continue to be produced for the remainder of the season. They have a rich, fruity fragrance with a refreshing sharpness. ‘Abraham Darby’ is an excellent, vigorous, medium-sized shrub. It has a bushy, arching habit and large, polished, rather modern leaves; flower, growth and leaf are all in proportion and never clumsy. Short Climber 6-8 ft.
Mme. Driout an amazing finds amongst Teas, it has flowers of bright rose with stripes of carmine, quite large and full, that open to show the golden stamens. This rose has intense and interesting fragrance; Myrrh? This is a moderate pillar rose that can be pruned and grown as a shrub or pegged down for increased bloom. This is a Climbing Tea bred before 1902 by J. Thirat and introduced in France in 1903 by Lucien Bolut in 1903, according to HelpMeFind. Mme. Driout may be grown as a 5' tall shrub or as a 10' climber. It has good fragrance and reliable rebloom and is one of the few striped teas--- Growth Habit: Fully Double Zone: Zone 7 Fragrance fff Height: 10-15 Feet Color: Pink Blend Westerland Climbing Roses Magnificent, large, well-formed 5" blooms (petals 20-25) of apricot, copper-orange on a bushy, vigorous, upright continual blooming plant with bronze-green foliage. We have to keep busy propagating this one because it is so popular. A truly outstanding shrub rose! Marvelous fragrance. Repeat blooming. Very winter hardy. Vigorous plant grows fast 10-12 ft.
Lady Hillingdon CL. A vigorous and hardy climbing rose and one of the best tea roses still in existence. The blooms are made up of large petals, resulting in long, elegant, waxy buds, which open to large, loosely formed flowers of deep apricot-yellow. These hang gracefully from the branch and emit a delicious, rich tea fragrance. ‘Lady Hillingdon’ continues to flower throughout the summer with unusual regularity. It has fine contrasting dark green foliage, which is coppery mahogany when young. 15ft.
Mme Caroline Testout Cl. An excellent climbing sport of an early Hybrid Tea Rose. Large, rose-pink flowers, the outer petals rolling back in an attractive way. Only a slight fragrance. It repeats flowers, producing a good second crop in September. Strong and enduring: David CH Austin still has one growing on his wall that was photographed in 1919 and was a mature plant, even in those days. 20ft.
Alchymist Cl. Rose Fully double, old-fashioned blooms of golden-yellow touched with orange. Wonderfully fragrant. Vigorous plant with shiny bronze-green foliage that may be grown as a shrub rose or a climber. Once blooming Awakening This is the latest "sport of Dawn, itself, a sport of Dr. Van Fleet and almost identical to it with the exception of Awakenings very double, old rose form blooms. It too blooms on this year’s wood versus last years and repeats very well all season... The very beautiful 3.5", soft pale pink blooms are very-double and born in clusters. Light fragrance, Rebloom reliably. The rose bush is very vigorous and very healthy. Foliage is a deep very shiny green. Disease resistant. Mme Alfred Carrierr There is few white climbing roses to rival ‘Mme. Alfred Carrière’ in performance. It bears large, cupped, creamy white blooms tinged with pink, which have a sweet tea rose fragrance. The flowers have a rather informal shape. In June and July it produces a magnificent display of blooms and continues to flower with great regularity until late in the season. This is a healthy, reliable and hardy climber with plentiful foliage. The growth is very strong and upright. 20ft. Goldilocks An excellent reblooming sport of the shrub rose, Goldilocks. Few better climbing yellow roses have been introduced since the heyday of the Tea-Noisettes. The growth is very strong and upright Height: 12-15 ft. Chapter 3Winter Protect Your Roses Now Roses are an expensive asset to our landscaping, so gardeners need to take a few precautions to protect this valuable asset. With these four easy steps you can be assured of a bounteous display of blooms comes spring. 1. Watering Roses during fall It is best to continue monitoring the amount of moisture that Mother Nature provides from now through just before the soil is frozen. Before the soil is likely to stay frozen, you should thoroughly soak the soil so that the roots are well hydrated for the coming colder weather. 2. Stop Deadheading Rose Blooms By mid-September, in the colder zones, you should stop the roses from re-blooming by not removing spent blooms. Roses need to store their energy for another season. So around mid-late September, for repeat-flowering roses, you should start sending messages to the rose bushes, telling them to stop their reproduction efforts and to conserve energy in order to survive the coming winter and bloom again next season. 3. Clean Debris from the Beds From mid-October onward until you are ready to take the final steps in winter protection, clean all debris such as old mulch, fallen leaves and flower petals, from the rose beds. Trash all debris away from the rose beds in garbage cans to minimize disease carryover into next season. Remove debris on a weekly basis as it accumulates, if not pulled off. Veterans Day week in the US (late November), is a good target date for finishing pulling petals (not deadheading) and removing foliage from the rose bushes. 5. Apply a winter mulch Apply a winter mulch to mound about 6 inches, or higher, over the bud union of all the modern type full size roses, and lesser amount on miniature roses. This is also a good time to consider spraying with Dormant Oil Spray to kill any fungus spores and prevent any insect eggs from overwintering. Wrap all canes of climbers and cold tender roses such as hybrid teas in several layers of burlap or a horticultural fleece material, and tie with rope to secure it. That's all there is to it for fall rose care. Zone 8-10 if you live in a warmer climate follows these steps1. In December cut the canes back and remove ALL leaves from plant.2. Add nutrients around the outer base of rose. Use one cup per plant of bone meal or any other natural rose/plant food and one cup of Epsom salt. 3. Water well to soak nutrients in then reduce watering during the cooler winter months. 4. Add mulch around the outer base of plant up to six inches. Chapter 410 Steps to Growing Roses Organically The most beloved flower of all is perhaps the most feared and the least planted, it is the garden rose. I hear so many people tell me "I can't grow a rose, it gets black spot, it gets bugs, it gets diseases, or it just won't grow." Yes, I agree you can get those problems, but if you plan and prepare well before you plant and while you plant and after you plant you can minimize any problems common to the rose. In my blog you will hear me expound on growing organically, there is a reason for that; it procures healthier and more disease resistant plants. I have listed 10 steps for you to follow to have lush blooming, healthy roses. 1. Choosing the planting site: The first step in planting roses is choosing the planting site carefully. Do not plant near a tree or large shrub that would rob the rose of needed water and nutrients. Roses need at least 6 hours of sun a day, Very few roses bloom well in the shade. 2. Digging the Hole: Dig the hole at least 24 inches wide and 24 inches deep, this will insure the plant roots can be adequately accommodated and will drain well. 3. Soil mixture: Roses need well-aerated, organically rich soil with a ph. range of 6.2 to 6.8. Once the hole is dug add to one to two tablespoons of Epsom salt for magnesium and bone meal for needed Phosphorus. Take the newly dug soil and mix with compost. 4. Prepare Roses: For Bare Root roses choose three to six of the strongest canes spread in all directions, then cut t hem back with a pruner to a length of 4 to 8 inches, snipping just above outward facing buds. Potted roses need to be thoroughly watered a day before planting. Prune the rose by at least a third. To remove the rose, place the container sideways on the ground then gently remove the rose from the container. For Own Root roses, little needs to be done except water well before planting. 5. Plant Rose: Insert rose into prepared hole, and cover the roots up to three inches past the crown line. Keep soil loose and crumbly; lightly but firmly tap the soil around the rose. Water deeply. 6. Fertilize: Organic nourished roses will be able to resist diseases and insect pests. An organic diet of compost will encourage your rose to bloom more abundantly and have more luxuriant foliage. Organic fertilizers can be applied anytime but do best early in the season as they remain in the soil longer. A good source of organic fertilizer is, bone meal, Epsom salt, alfalfa pellets, green sand, fish emulsion, cottonseed meal, kelp meal, and animal manure. 7. Water: Water deeply and less frequently. Provide 1 inch of water per week, in one or two deep applications. Water in the morning. Water slowly and repeatedly. Water whenever the rose blossoms. 8. Mulch: Place organic mulch four to six inches around rose plant. Mulch protects the rose from, heat and water evaporation in the summer and from winter freezes. 9. Pest: The best offense for pest is a good defense. Plant beneficial herbs such as chervil, cilantro, dill, fennel, parsley, lovage to attract beneficial insects. 10. Prune: Pruning regularly will provide and an abundance of blooms. Prune in spring or late winter. My Roses In all the years of growing roses I have never bought chemicals to spray on my roses. They have flourished just the same. Below you can see pictures of roses in my rose garden. Beverly Rose Cornelia Don Juan General Schabilkine Golden Showers Heritage Iceberg Lady Hillingdon Federick Mistral Alchymist Leonardo De Vinci Madam Joseph Swartz Mme Caroline Testout Mme Isaac Periere Safrano Chapter 510 Most Fragrant Roses Roses are admired for their fragrance and large beautiful blooms every garden should have a few. Fragrance has been described as the very soul of a rose. There is the rich heady fragrances of the Old Roses as in the Centifolias and Damasks but there is also the myrrh-like fragrance of the English Roses. Hybrid teas, as a whole, are not usual very fragrant, but the breeders excelled in providing some excellent fragrant varieties. The English Roses have a particularly strong fragrance which they inherit from the old varieties. They are the most fragrant of all roses, not excluding the Old Roses themselves. After growing roses for many years, I have my favorites listed below and I think you will agree. Madame Isaac Pereire
Considered one of the most fragrant roses in history, 'Madame Isaac Pereire' bears petal-filled, deep raspberry-rose flowers in spring and again in summer. Size: To 7 feet tall and 5 feet wide Zones: 6-9 Honey Perfume
This award-winning floribunda raised bears beautiful 4-inch-wide, strongly fragrant, apricot-yellow blooms that appear in clusters. It's compact, too, and offers good resistance to powdery mildew and rose rust. Size: To 4 feet tall and 3 feet wide Zones: 5-9 Fragrant Plum
Noteworthy for its color (lavender to smoky purple at the edges) and its sweet scent (rich and plum-like), 'Fragrant Plum' is a hybrid tea that bears almost perfectly shaped flowers that look stunning in a vase. Size: To 6 feet tall and 4 feet wide Zones: 5-9 Heritage
Another outstanding English rose, Heritage bears petal-filled soft-pink blooms that smell of sweet lemons. Many gardeners appreciate that it has fewer (at least than most roses) thorns on its canes and good disease resistance. Size: To 5 feet tall and 4 feet wide Zones: 5-9 Mister Lincoln
An award-winning rose born in 1965 that's just as popular today, it features rich, velvety-red roses packed with a strong fragrance. Some rose experts say 'Mister Lincoln' set the standard for red roses. Size: To 7 feet tall and 4 feet wide Zones: 5-9 Louise Odier
Bred in 1851, this vigorous old garden rose remains popular for its strength as a cut flower, use in the landscape (it makes a stunning hedge!), constant supply of summertime blooms, and intense sweet fragrance. Size: To 6 feet tall and 4 feet wide Zones: 5-9 Fragrant Cloud
Your instincts are right if 'America' climbing rose reminds you of 'Fragrant Cloud'; this selection is one of America's parents. Like its offspring, it's an award winner that offers a captivating fragrance in its big coral-red blooms. 'Fragrant Cloud', however, is a vigorous hybrid tea with a lot of flower power. Size: To 5 feet tall and wide Zones: 5-9 Double Delight
One of the most distinctive hybrid tea roses, 'Double Delight' bears creamy white flowers with rich, cherry-red edges that deepen as the flower ages, as well as a knock-your-socks-off fragrance. It's one of the most dramatic and dependable roses in the garden.
Size: To 5 feet tall and wide Zones: 3-9 Gertrude Jekyll
Most English roses are wonderfully fragrant, so it's no surprise David Austin's 'Gertrude Jekyll' made the list. This easy-growing stunner offers great disease resistance and wonderful medium-pink flowers on a vigorous plant. Size: To 6 feet tall and 4 feet wide Zones: 5-9 Madame Alfred Carriere
Another old-rose classic, this climbing rose was born in 1879 and features pink-blushed white flowers with a strong spicy-sweet scent. It bears a continuous supply of blooms and is perfect for clothing a wall or pergola (especially since it bears fewer thorns than most roses). Size: To 16 feet tall and 9 feet wide Zones: 6-9 Chapter 6Prune Roses the Right Way
Ever wonder how some people are able to contour their roses to different shapes and sizes? Why their roses seem to look flawless year round? The key to maintaining strong, healthy roses is pruning. Pruning ensures that your plant stays healthy and vigorous while producing larger flowers with strong stems. Pruning also eliminates dead, diseased and damaged canes which ensure health of the plant. When the gardener removes canes from the center of the plant, airflow is improved; this decreases the likelihood of any form of fungus or mildew buildup to occur within the plant. Trimming the plant also allows for the gardener to become creative and shape their plant to any design they seem fit. Pruning is about more than just looks; proper pruning improves the health of your rose bush, prevents disease and encourages better flowering. There are different pruning strategies for different times of the year, but overall the goal is always the same; to keep the bush fresh and open, to allow for better air circulation through the center of the plant. Air movement dries the leaves, which helps prevent foliar diseases from attacking your roses. Fungal diseases like black spot and powdery mildew are much more common on plants with congested growth in the middle of the plant. Pruning also keeps the rose bush in proportion to the rest of your garden. The following are general pruning guidelines which are applicable to most modern rose types; Floribunda, Grandiflora, and Hybrid Tea. · When to Prune The optimal time to prune a rose is late winter, which in most parts of the country falls within the months of January and February. During this time, the last frost should have past leaving it safe to cut into the plant without causing any form of cold damage. If you live in a certain area which suffers from severe winters, you may want to wait until early spring to prune your roses in order to prevent cold damage to your plants. If you are still unsure where or not to prune, base your pruning off of bud growth. When the buds have begun to swell, it is normally a good sign to begin pruning. How to Prune · Tools In order to begin you will want to make sure that you have either rose or leather gloves to protect your hands from thorns. Also, you may want to consider wearing something to protect your arms and legs. Next, a good pair of bypass hand sheers will be needed to clear out the smaller foliage (branches about ½” or thinner), and a pair of long handled bypass loppers for the larger, thicker canes. It is important to note that the sheers and loppers should both be bypass and not anvil head (anvil heads tend to damage the plant whereas bypass makes a cleaner cut). · Instructions Before you begin the process of pruning, take the time to decide on a shape and height for the plant. Although the traditional Urn/vase shape allows for optimal air circulation within the bush, you may have some other style or design which best suits your needs. Make sure to have an idea outlined prior to trimming. Next, you are going to want to remove any form of winter protection (e.g. mounted soil, burlap, and rose cones) which may have been placed in order to provide superior work room. Once that has been completed, you should begin pruning out and removing any dead canes. Dead canes can be determined by their shriveled, blackened appearance. In contrast, a live healthy cane has a nice green outside and a cream or green color in the center of the cane. If only part of the cane is damaged, try to prune as close to the base or bud union as possible.
After the dead canes have been removed, search for and remove any rootstocks (suckers) growing from your plant. Suckers are new plants growing up from the roots of the old plant (host plant). If left alone, they will suck vital nutrients from the host plant and hinder its growth process. Whenever you find a sucker, you will need to take away the soil from around it, find where it is growing and sever it from the plant. If just cut at ground level, the rootstock will grow back stronger. Prune any remaining canes which are thinner than a pencil, cross or rub against each other (crossing or rubbing of canes are prime spots where diseases occur).
Next we can focus on the remaining healthy canes. Start by selecting four to six canes and prune to create the desired shape, leaving anywhere from one to four feet of cane depending on personal preference. When your plant begins to bloom, you may want to trim away some of your new crop for personal use or remove the spent bloomed flowers from the plant. This process, called deadheading, is very healthy and encourages the plant to re-bloom throughout the summer. Search for a cane that is large enough to support new growth, and has at least five leaves above the bud eye. Make your incision at that location, removing any leftover debris. Once winter begins, place any form of winter protection you may have for the plant and start the whole process again next year.
Special SituationsOnce-Blooming Roses:Old Garden Roses that bloom only once a year produce flowers on old wood. This is growth that appears the year previous to any bloom it produces. Once-bloomers should only be pruned immediately after they finish flowering (generally around mid-July). If you prune in the spring, you will lose all of that year’s bloom. Old Garden Roses can be pruned to 15 inches every other year without damage. This keeps a large bush within bounds and provides shaping. If you don’t mind the size of the bush, then only prune for dead, damaged and diseased canes or other growth that is undesirable to you. Hedge Roses: you will prune differently if you wish a hedge effect than if you are shaping an individual bush. For a hedge, your bushes will be planted closer together than normally and should be treated as a unit. Prune for an even growth production.
Roses in Pots: are pruned in much the same way as those in the ground. Generally pots are on the patio or near a pathway. Keeping the bush trimmed so it doesn’t reach out and grab the passerby is a good practice! Roses that Colonize: produce new growth from the roots and spread out to cover a large area. Some Gallicas and a few Centifolias will do this. Instead of pruning at the soil level, just use a shovel and dig up the extra growth. These are roses you can give your friends or plant in new locations of your own garden. This is how many roses were transported from one part of the country to another in the early days of wagon trains. ‘Harrison’s Yellow’ is one such example. Groundcover Roses: tend to grow wider than they do tall. If your groundcover rose is outgrowing its space, resist the temptation to chop the ends of the lower branches. These roses should not be pruned in a vase shape, as that will direct their growth upward instead of outward. In general, shearing roses like topiary shrubs is a bad idea, and it will be difficult to recover the form of the rose. If a branch is getting too long, follow that cane all the way back and remove it at the center. Hybrid Musk Roses: prune lightly to remove spent bloom clusters and maintain a rounded bush at 3-4 feet (or taller if you have room). Hybrid Musk’s tolerate more severe pruning if space is limited. Miniature Roses: should be cut back by 1/3 in the spring. These roses are very resilient and may be pruned at any time of the year to shape the bush. Reprint AARS and Heirloom Roses Chapter 7How To Care for Standard Tree Roses How to Care for Standard Tree Roses? Tree Roses are more properly called Rose Standards – a term believed to come from Victorian Europe when such techniques were commonly used in the rose gardens of nobles. Typically, the central cane, onto which the hybrid rose is grafted, is 32 to 36 inches long. (Miniature rose standards may be grafted onto shorter canes of about 24 inches. These are sometimes marketed as patio tree roses.) . They look great as a center piece surrounded by a bed of low growing varieties, but they can also be used to line a path or driveway for a dramatic effect, placed in containers by a door to create a stunning entrance or simply planted in a border to add variety and a touch of elegance to any garden. Rose standards can make a wonderful addition to the garden. If you are willing to spend the time with them, they can add not only color but also structure and height to your garden as well. Potting a bare root standard. Our Rosa standards are shipped bare root. They can be planted in the ground or in a container. If you plant them in a container, we recommend that you start with a pot that measures 10-12 inches in diameter. Use a fast-draining potting mix specifically designed for containers. Staking a standard. To keep your standard standing, put it out of reach of strong winds and support it with a stake that has a diameter at least as large as the stems and long enough that when plunged into the pot or the ground it reaches inside the head. Fasten the standard to the stake at several points with twine or plastic ties looped in a figure eight around stem and stake. Check the ties periodically. Loosen them if they constrict the outward growth of the stem. Pruning and repotting. Maintain the shape of the head with selective pinching of the new shoots (overzealous pinching will prevent the formation of flower buds). Pinch each shoot between thumb and forefinger or cut with pruning shears; do not shear the plant as though it were a hedge. If you find that a standard in a container dries out quickly after watering, the plant probably needs a larger pot. Lift it from its current pot, make four deep vertical cuts in the root ball, and place it in a new pot that is 2 inches wider and taller than the old one, filling in around the root ball with fresh potting mix. Water thoroughly after repotting. Container care. Plants in containers dry out more quickly than plants in the ground; in the heat of summer, you may have to water them daily. To decrease the need to water, we suggest incorporating a super absorbent gel into the potting mix. With frequent watering, nutrients wash out the bottom of the pot. We recommend that you mix a timed-release fertilizer into the potting mix before you add the mix to the container. In addition, we suggest you water with a balanced (20-20-20), water soluble fertilizer, mixed as directed, but at half strength, applied once a month through August. Overwintering a standard. Most standards require special care to overwinter. Our Rosa standards, although quite cold-hardy in its natural form, need winter protection where temperatures dip below 10°F. After frost induces it to go dormant, a standard in a container may be kept in an unheated basement or garage where temperatures range between 25 and 40°F. Check the potting mix occasionally for moisture, and water as needed. A standard grown in the ground may be potted in the fall and overwintered as above, or it may be laid on its side and buried in a shallow trench. Although the second technique sounds incredible, devoted standard growers in cold climates swear by it. Begin by pruning the stems in the head back to just 6-8 inches. Then dig a trench at the foot of the standard that is as long as the standard is tall and as deep as the diameter of the shorn head. With a spade, slice a circle 2 feet in diameter around the base of the main stem to loosen the plant's hold on the soil. Tip the standard into the trench, fill the trench with soil (burying the plant), and mound additional soil above. In spring, unearth the plant and stand it back up for another season of beauty. Chapter 8English Roses Today roses are to be found in almost every garden in the country. What is the fascination of this flower how is it that the rose has always been the best loved of all flowers? It seems to have the ability to evoke by its beauty many of the emotions, principles, desires and joys fundamental to the spirit of man and to do this as no other flower can. In the flower of a rose there are so many variations of petals and buds. Its coloring too varies to dark to white to multicolored and will differ according to where it is grown, from garden to garden, from one soil to another. Abraham Darby Rose Then there is fragrance, which has been describes as the very soul of a rose. There is the rich heady fragrances of the Old Roses as in the Centifolias and Damasks but there is also the myrrh-like fragrance of the English Roses. It is a flower for all people, from the great garden to the smallest suburban plot. What other flower can combine so many qualities? It is small wonder that the rose is known as the “Queen of Flowers” Heritage Rose Old Roses and English Roses are but a part of the great family of the rose, but an increasingly important part for the majority of discerning gardeners. The English rose is the subject of this blog today. What are English Roses? English Roses are a new breed of roses by Rose Breeder David Austin. Some call the roses “Austin Roses”. They are the result of crossing the Old Roses with Modern Hybrid Teas and Floribundas. They combine the unique character and beauty of the Old Roses together with something of their natural and more graceful shrubby growth, with the excellent repeat-flowering qualities of the Modern Roses. They also combine with this all the varying colors that we find in; Modern Roses. English Roses are in fact new “Old Roses”. A Shropshire Lass Rose In addition, the English Roses have a particularly strong fragrance which they inherit from the old varieties. They are the most fragrant of all roses, not excluding the Old Roses themselves. Graham Thomas Rose Evelyn Rose Care of English Roses: English Roses are repeat flowering roses and if we wish to be sure of flowers later in the season it is necessary to give them fertile soil and to feed them well, if possible giving them some form of natural manure. It is also essential that there should be moisture if flowering is to continue throughout the summer. Without this growth will cease and with it the flowers. Mulching is helpful and during dry spells, watering. Claire RoseGolden Celebration Rose Pruning is also more important with repeat flowering shrub roses and so it is with English roses. It will vary depending on the gardener’s own requirements, but in general it is best to prune back the growth to two-thirds or one-half of its length, and remove weak, dead or ageing branches. Prune in late autumn or up until January. The growth of roses starts very early and if we prune late we remove shoots that are already growing well. This does not matter except for the fact that we are delaying flowering because the growth will have to start all over again and this can sometimes mean that the second or third crop of flowers arrives so late in the season that it is caught by late frosts. Chapter 97 Must Have Old Garden Tea Roses OGR Tea Roses are little know and scarce to find. You will never locate them in a big box store or your local nurseries. Most people have never heard of them. Growing up in the South these roses were very common, but they were passed on by cuttings. When a girl got married she received a cutting from her Mothers tea roses and so on. Of all the Heirloom (Old Garden Roses) roses, the profuse, graceful scented Tea roses are among my favorites. Tea roses are not as hardly as their subsequent offspring the Hybrid Tea, (do not like cold weather) but they have plenty of other generous attributes to recommend them. · First off, they are wonderfully scented. I could spend a whole afternoon in the rose garden. · Another plus is, they grow fairly fast. · They are large, and fully loaded with bloom in the spring. · They complement companion plants. I don’t think a Cottage Garden could be complete without one or two The Tea roses were introduced from China in the first half of the nineteenth century. They can be slightly tender but were highly prized for their large blooms, repeat flowering and the inclusion of yellow in the color range. They are beautiful, delicate creatures. The early varieties were bred for the show bench but with further cross breeding they developed into the hardy garden plants that predominated in the 20th century. They come in a huge range of colors, shapes and sizes. Pruning Guide: Prune when reducing main stems by half in winter/spring. My personal favorites in my own Cottage Garden include the following .... Lady Hillingdon, cl A vigorous and hardy climbing rose, and one of the best tea roses still in existence. The blooms are made up of large petals, resulting in long, elegant, waxy buds, which open to large, loosely formed flowers of deep apricot-yellow. These hang gracefully from the branch and emit a delicious, rich tea fragrance. ‘Lady Hillingdon’ continues to flower throughout the summer with unusual regularity. It has fine contrasting dark green foliage, which is coppery mahogany when young. 15ft. Safrano 1839 Though its parents are unknown, ‘Safrano’ is recorded by Roy Shepherd as "the result of the first successful attempt to control parentage by hand pollination", thereby introducing a new era in raised breeding. This rose has double, well scented flowers of bright fawn, with long-pointed buds. It was once described exhibiting "lovely buds of sunset coloring... saffron to apricot in the bud, changing to pale buff... A pretty and hardy variety, worthy of a place in every collection..." Specimens of 'Safrano' that at least a century old exist in cemeteries and abandoned home sites. 4-6 ft. Cramoisi Supérieur 1832 This fine old rose has velvety, rich crimson flowers with a silvery reverse and a deliciously fruity fragrance. The double, cupped form of the blossoms is distinctive, keeping with the rounded shape even when fully open. Like all true Chinas, it is very nearly everblooming in a warm climate. The leaves are small, neatly shaped, dark green and very healthy. The plant has an upright habit and, if left unpruned, will slowly grow to over five feet tall and equally wide. Cramoisi Suprieur or Agrippina, as it is sometimes still called, is one of the old roses that can often be found in country gardens of Texas and the South. It is a valuable and beautiful landscape plant that provides almost continuous color. Général Schablikine 1878 This lovely old Tea has very double, fragrant flowers of copper-red shaded with cherry that open from rather long buds to nearly flats. A sturdy plant with plenty of foliage, ideal in a hedge or as a specimen. 3 to 5 feet Devoniensis 1858 Known as "Tradd Street Yellow" in Charleston, where it is highly admired, this rose is sure one of the all-time greats. Its flowers can be primrose yellow, magnolia white or ivory, depending on the weather. Always of large and sumptuous form, with an intense heady fragrance. Madame Joseph Schwartz 1880 The white color sport of Duchesse de Brabant. Very fragrant. 4 to 6 feet Rhodologue Jules Gravereaux 1908 Medium pink, tea fragrance, great cut flower and blooms throughout the season. Introduced/discovered in 1908. Cross of Marie Van Houtte x Madame Abel Chatenay.Pink blend. Mild fragrance. Medium, very double bloom form. Blooms in flushes throughout the season. Chapter 10Beloved Floribunda Roses Floribunda Roses are a much loved addition to the garden and provide that classic feel to the summer cottage garden. Developed during the last century, these bushy shrubs have the large, showy blossoms of the hybrid teas, but bloom more freely, setting clusters of three to fifteen blossoms rather than a single bloom on a stem. Floribundas are versatile; an individual shrub will fit easily into almost any sunny border planting. However, they are perhaps most striking in mass plantings. Floribunda roses offer a bouquet on every branch. The small flowers look like elegant hybrid tea blooms but appear in clusters instead of one flower per stem. Floribundas are a cross between polyanthus species roses and hybrid teas, combining hardiness, free flowering, and showy, usually fragrant blooms.
Sizes of these hardy roses vary from compact and low-growing to a more open habit and heights of 5-6 feet, ideal for tall hedges. The foliage on floribunda roses tends to shrug off diseases, making for a low-maintenance plant that delivers maximum impact with its continuous bloom cycles. Most floribundas require very little spring pruning -- just removal of dead or damaged wood.
Floribunda (Latin for "many-flowering") is a modern group of garden roses that was developed by crossing hybrid teas with polyanthus roses, the latter being derived from crosses between Rosa chinensis and Rosa multiflora (sometimes called R. polyantha). The idea was to create roses that bloomed with the polyantha profusion, but with hybrid tea floral beauty and colour range.
The first polyantha/hybrid tea cross, 'Rödhätte', was introduced by the Danish breeder Dines Poulsen in 1907. It possessed characteristics of both its parent classes, and was initially called a Hybrid Polyantha or Poulsen rose. Poulsen continued this line of work in subsequent years, introducing several Hybrid Polyanthas such as 'Else Poulsen' in 1924. Other breeders also began introducing similar varieties, and in 1930 the name "floribunda" was coined by Dr. J.N. Nicolas, a rose hybridizer for Jackson & Perkins in the US. This term has been used since then to describe cultivars which in their ancestry have crosses between hybrid teas and polyanthas. Typical floribundas feature stiff shrubs, smaller and bushier than the average hybrid tea but less dense and sprawling than the average polyantha. The flowers are often smaller than hybrid teas but are carried in large sprays, giving a better floral effect in the garden. Floribundas are found in all hybrid tea colors and with the classic hybrid tea-shaped blossom, sometimes differing from hybrid teas only in their cluster-flowering habit. Today they are still used in large bedding schemes in public parks and similar spaces. My Favorite Top Varieties'Amber Queen' rose
'Amber Queen' bears clusters of cupped double flowers in a medium yellow and possesses a strong spicy-sweet fragrance. The plant stays compact, growing to 2-1/2 feet tall and wide. Zones 6-9 'Angel Face' rose 'Angel Face' shows strong disease resistance, an improvement on lavender roses. The ruffled blooms have a strong citrusy scent. The plant grows 2-3 feet high. Zones 5-9 'Blueberry Hill' rose 'Blueberry Hill' features unique pale lilac semi double blooms that smother the plant's glossy dark green foliage early in the season and then continuously until fall. The flower fragrance is sweet apple. The rounded plants show great vigor and disease resistance. They grow 4-5 feet tall and wide. Zones 5-11 'Cinco de Mayo' rose 'Cinco de Mayo' is an award-winning selection honored for its nonstop flower production, spicy color blend, and disease resistance. The clustered blooms feature a smoky mix of russet and lavender with coral highlights. Their fragrance is like a tart apple. 'Cinco de Mayo' grows 3-4 feet tall. Zones 5-9 'Hot Cocoa' rose 'Hot Cocoa' is another unique-color, award-winning variety. The blooms feature a smoldering color combination of cinnamon and pepper red, with a purple shimmer on the petals. It grows 4-5 feet tall. Zones 5-9 'French Lace' rose 'French Lace' offers classic urn-shape ivory to apricot buds that open to large, full flowers of a warm ivory tone. The fragrance is delicate. Flowers open on an upright plant that grows 3 feet tall and is disease resistant. Zones 4-9 'Honey Perfume' rose 'Honey Perfume' features clustered apricot-yellow blooms on a disease-resistant plant. The fragrance mixes honey and spice. It grows 3-4 feet tall. Zones 5-9 'Iceberg' rose 'Iceberg' is one of the most popular landscaping roses. It sets continuous drifts of small, clustered double white flowers from late spring through fall. The blooms have a light, sweet fragrance. The plant grows 4-6 feet tall and wide. Zones 5-9 'Living' Easy' rose 'Living' Easy' bears big apricot blooms that deepen to orange in full flower. The fragrance is moderate and fruity, and the foliage is glossy. The weather-tolerant plant is resistant to fungal diseases and grows 4-5 feet tall. Zones 5-9 'Rosemary Rose' Rosemary Rose bears medium size red bloom that covers the bush from spring until frost. There is not a noticeable fragrance but the generous blooming more than compensates. The weather-tolerant plant is resistant to fungal diseases and grows 3-4 feet tall. Zones 5-9 'Scentimental' rose 'Scentimental' is a contemporary rose with peppermint-stripe petals that hearken back to Gallica species roses. The blooms have a strong old-rose fragrance. The hardy plants grow to 4 feet tall. Zones 5-9 'Sexy Rexy' rose 'Sexy Rexy' offers perfectly shaped, large, clear-pink blooms that unfurl layer after layer of petals. The clustered bouquets almost smother the glossy foliage, especially in the season's first flower flush. They're scented with a light tea-rose perfume. This variety is known to be very disease resistant. It grows 3-1/2 feet tall. Zones 5-9 Chapter 11What is an Heirloom Rose? What is a ‘Heirloom Rose’? When referring strictly to ‘roses’ an heirloom roses are also known as “antique” or “old garden” roses, which include those that existed before 1867. Why that particular date you ask? “La France” the first hybrid tea rose, was discovered growing in a garden patch and introduced in 1867 which marked the start of a new era. All classes of roses in existence before that time were deemed ‘old garden roses’ or ‘heirlooms’. Hence new classes were called modern roses. The actual heirloom varieties are hard to pinpoint and fall into several categories; Albas, Centifolias, Damasks, Gallicas and Moss roses. These antique varieties are as simple to grow as the modern roses we find today. Admired for their fragrance and large beautiful blooms every garden should have a few. Gallicas are the oldest of the old garden roses, having been grown by the Greeks and Romans. They have been involved in the development of all four other classes of ‘old garden roses’ and have influenced to at least some small degree nearly all garden roses down to the present. Later they were bred by the Dutch and French as many of the names indicate. Their great colors range from shades of pink, reds, purples and even crimson- red with stripes. The single, double or semi-double blooms held either singly or in threes are mostly very fragrant. The bushes are easily recognized as low suckering shrubs with foliage that is oval, pointed and have a rough texture that is typically dark green in color. These roses can be grown in poor, even gravelly soil and demand a minimum of attention. The Damask rose dates back to Biblical times. They originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and were introduced to the Europeans by the Crusaders. Egyptians, Greeks, Persians and Romans all grew this extraordinarily fragrant, perfume-like rose. Damasks have a mixed parentage originating from a natural hybrid between the Gallica rose and a wild species rose. Damasks are very cold hardy as some can be grown in zone 4. They are very thorny and have a rather lax and arching growth habit reaching three to seven feet tall. Most only bloom once a year and require good fertile soil if they are to look their best. Albas are the most elegant of all old roses with tall, slender upright growth producing flowers of blush pink or white with charming beauty set against the perfect background of grey-green foliage. Albas are very hardy and thrive under difficult conditions even partial shade. Alba roses have a strong, rich perfume that gives them special appeal in the garden and as cut flowers. Cold hardy for zones 3-9. Centifolias are also known as ‘Cabbage Roses’ because of the size and shape of their blooms, along with many petals as the name suggests, up to 100 or more. Developed by Dutch breeders in the period between the 17th and 19th centuries they are the classic old garden roses often reproduced in artists’ prints popular today. Centifolias have lax, open, rather lanky growth with a mixture of large and small thorns. The leaves are large, rounded and broadly toothed while the flowers tend to be heavy and globular. They benefit from support to stop them bending too near the ground. They are once blooming, very fragrant and very winter hardy. The Moss Roses are the roses of Victorian England. Moss Roses are actually Centifolias and Damasks that have developed a distinctive, fragrant moss-like growth on the sepals that has the smell of pine. The mossing adds great elegance to the flowers and is a result of a sport, or fault in the plant. The majority of Moss Roses were bred over a short period of time, from approximately 1850 to 1870. Moss Roses have inherited the strong fragrance of their Centifolia ancestors and pruning should be as recommended for the Centifolias. Moss roses come in almost all colors and some varieties are repeat blooming. Bourbon roses originated on the Île Bourbon (now called Réunion) off the coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. They are believed to be the result of a cross between the Autumn Damask and the 'Old Blush' China rose, both of which were frequently used as hedging materials on the island. They flower repeatedly on vigorous, frequently semi-climbing shrubs with glossy foliage and purple-tinted canes. They were first introduced in France in 1823. Examples: 'Louise Odier', 'Mme. Pierre Oger', 'Zéphirine Drouhin' (the last example is often classified under climbing roses). The Hybrid Musk group was mainly developed by Rev. Joseph Pemberton, a British rosarian, in the first decades of the 20th century, based upon 'Aglaia', an 1896 cross by Peter Lambert. A seedling of this rose, 'Trier', is considered to the foundation of the class. The genetics of the class are somewhat obscure, as some of the parents are unknown. Rose multiflora, however, is known to be one parent and Rosa moschata (the musk rose) also figures in its heritage, though it is considered to be less important than the name would suggest. Hybrid musk’s are disease-resistant, repeat flowering and generally cluster-flowered, with a strong, characteristic "musk" scent. The stems tend to be lax and arching, with limited thorns. Examples include 'Buff Beauty' and 'Penelope' The first Noisette rose was raised as a hybrid seedling by a South Carolina rice planter named John Champneys. Its parents were the China Rose 'Parson's Pink' and the autumn-flowering musk rose (Rosa moschata), resulting in a vigorous climbing rose producing huge clusters of small pink flowers from spring to fall. Champneys sent seedlings of his rose (called 'Champneys' Pink Cluster') to his gardening friend, Philippe Noisette, who in turn sent plants to his brother Louis in Paris, who then introduced 'Blush Noisette' in 1817. The first Noisettes were small-blossomed, fairly winter-hardy climbers, but later infusions of Tea rose genes created a Tea-Noisette subclass with larger flowers, smaller clusters, and considerably reduced winter hardiness. Examples: 'Blush Noisette', 'Lamarque' (Noisette); 'Mme. Alfred Carriere', 'Marechal Niel' (Tea-Noisette). (See French and German articles on Noisette roses) Hybrid Perpetuals, the dominant class of roses in Victorian England, (a misleading translation of hybrides remontants, 'reblooming hybrids') emerged in 1838 as the first roses which successfully combined Asian remontancy (repeat blooming) with the old European lineages. Since re-bloom is a recessive trait, the first generation of Asian/European crosses (Hybrid Chinas, Hybrid Bourbons, and Hybrid Noisettes) was stubbornly once-blooming, but when these roses were reclosed with themselves or with Chinas or teas, some of their offspring flowered more than once. The Hybrid Perpetuals thus were something of a miscellany, a catch-all class derived to a great extent from the Bourbons but with admixtures of Chinas, teas, damasks, Gallicas, and to a lesser extent Noisettes, Albas and even Centifolias. They became the most popular garden and florist roses of northern Europe at the time, as the tender tea roses would not thrive in cold climates, and the Hybrid Perpetuals' very large blooms were well-suited to the new phenomenon of competitive exhibitions. The "perpetual" in the name hints at repeat-flowering, but many varieties of this class had poor re-flowering habits; the tendency was for a massive spring bloom, followed by either scattered summer flowering, a smaller autumn burst, or sometimes nothing at all until next spring. Due to a limited colour palette (white, pink, red) and lack of reliable repeat-bloom, the hybrid Perpetuals was ultimately overshadowed by their descendants, the Hybrid Teas. Examples: 'Ferdinand Pilchard', 'Reine Des Violettes', 'Paul Neyron'. Centuries ago, William Shakespeare’s Juliet said, “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet”. Perhaps the saying is not as true as we would like to think. As modern rose gardening developed, so did the hybridizing of rose varieties. Today about 80% of all roses grown are from the modern classes of roses. Encouraged to produce hardier specimens with larger blooms and heavier producing plants, rose growers cross-pollinated their specimens. The results are the hybrid tea roses and floribundas so popular and prevalent in today’s gardens. Although popular and beautiful in their own right, they do not possess the heady fragrance or the big full blooms that the old garden roses are noted for. The Heirloom Rose however is poised for a comeback as the past still lures us with the full flower form and wonderful fragrance that enhances the old garden rose. Chapter 12Tea Rose versus Hybrid Tea Roses Of all the Heirloom roses, the profuse, graceful scented Tea roses are among my favorites. I first fell in love with Tea roses when I first saw Safrano blooming in the front lawn of a home in Winchester, Ohio. It took me two years to find the name of that wonderful rose and another year to find out where to purchase Old Tea Roses. Tea roses are as hardly as their subsequent offspring the Hybrid Tea, but they have plenty of other generous attributes to recommend them. First off, they are wonderfully scented. I could spend a whole afternoon in the rose garden just sniffing. Another plus is, they grow fairly fast and are large, full and loaded with bloom in the spring. I don’t think a Cottage Garden could be complete without one or two The Tea roses were introduced from China in the first half of the nineteenth century. They can be slightly tender but were highly prized for their large blooms, repeat flowering and the inclusion of yellow in the color range. They are beautiful, delicate creatures. The early varieties were bred for the show bench but with further cross breeding they developed into the hardy garden plants that predominated in the 20th century. They come in a huge range of colors, shapes and sizes. Pruning Guide: Prune when reducing main stems by half in winter/spring. My personal favorites in my own Cottage Garden include the following.... Lady Hillingdon, cl A vigorous and hardy climbing rose, and one of the best tea roses still in existence. The blooms are made up of large petals, resulting in long, elegant, waxy buds, which open to large, loosely formed flowers of deep apricot-yellow. These hang gracefully from the branch and emit a delicious, rich tea fragrance. ‘Lady Hillingdon’ continues to flower throughout the summer with unusual regularity. It has fine contrasting dark green foliage, which is coppery mahogany when young. 15ft. Safrano 1839 Though its parents are unknown, ‘Safrano’ is recorded by Roy Shepherd as "the result of the first successful attempt to control parentage by hand pollination", thereby introducing a new era in raised breeding. This rose has double, well scented flowers of bright fawn, with long-pointed buds. It was once described exhibiting "lovely buds of sunset coloring... saffron to apricot in the bud, changing to pale buff... A pretty and hardy variety, worthy of a place in every collection..." The new shoots of foliage are plum colored, contrasting nicely with the blossoms. 4 to 6 feet Specimens of 'Safrano' that at least a century old exist in cemeteries and abandoned home sites. Cramoisi Supérieur 1832 This fine old rose has velvety, rich crimson flowers with a silvery reverse and a deliciously fruity fragrance. The double, cupped form of the blossoms is distinctive, keeping with the rounded shape even when fully open. Like all true Chinas, it is very nearly everblooming in a warm climate. The leaves are small, neatly shaped, dark green and very healthy. The plant has an upright habit and, if left unpruned, will slowly grow to over five feet tall and equally wide. Cramoisi Suprieur or Agrippina, as it is sometimes still called, is one of the old roses that can often be found in country gardens of Texas and the South. It is a valuable and beautiful landscape plant that provides almost continuous color. Général Schablikine 1878 This lovely old Tea has very double, fragrant flowers of copper-red shaded with cherry that open from rather long buds to nearly flats. A sturdy plant with plenty of foliage, ideal in a hedge or as a specimen. 3 to 5 feet Devoniensis 1858 Known as "Tradd Street Yellow" in Charleston, where it is highly admired, this rose is sure one of the all-time greats. Its flowers can be primrose yellow, magnolia white or ivory, depending on the weather. Always of large and sumptuous form, with an intense heady fragrance. Madame Joseph Schwartz 1880 The white color sport of Duchesse de Brabant. 4 to 6 feet Rhodologue Jules Gravereaux 1908 Medium pink, tea fragrance, great cut flower and blooms throughout the season. Introduced/discovered in 1908. Cross of Marie Van Houtte x Madame Abel Chatenay.Pink blend. Mild fragrance. Medium, very double bloom form. Blooms in flushes throughout the season. Now that we know all the marvelous attributes of Tea rose why would we buy a Hybrid Tea?What is a Hybrid Tea Rose? The favorite rose for much of the history of modern roses. They were created by hybridizing Hybrid Perpetuals with Tea roses in the late 19th century. 'La France', created in 1867, is the first indication of a new class of roses. The flowers are well-formed with large, high-centered buds, and each flowering stem typically has a single shapely bloom. The bush tends to be stiffly upright and sparsely foliaged, which today is often seen as a liability in the landscape. Hybrid teas became the single most popular class of garden rose of the 20th century; today, their reputation as being more high maintenance than many other rose classes has led to a decline in hybrid tea popularity among gardeners and landscapers in favor of lower-maintenance "landscape" roses. The hybrid tea remains the standard rose of the floral industry, however, and is still favored in small gardens in formal situations. I have many HT in my garden, but I try to choose those that are scented and of unusual color. They seem to be vigorous, but in my opinion are more prone to problems. With that said, here is a list of my personal favorites. My all-time favorite Mme Caroline Testout just missed by a few years being an OGR, or Heirloom rose. This rose, being well over 100 years old, is still grown in gardens all over the world. The buds are large and globular, the flowers a bright pink with a darker center. David Austin used this rose to produce "Wife of Bath". The fragrance is strong, repeat flowering. Mme Caroline Testout Double Delight Brandy Mr Lincoln Great Century Frederic Mistral Caroline of Monaco Leonidas Just Joey Chapter 13The Most Fragrant Roses for Your Garden First Prize
Hybrid Tea Roses
Long pointed buds open into perfect 6+" flowers (petals 25+) that are made up of half swirled hues of rose-pink with an ivory pink reverse. All of this on a continually blooming bushy plant with dark green, leathery leaves that provide the perfect foil for its outstanding blooms. Awakening Climbing Roses Discovered in Czechoslovakia, this is an outstanding addition to the ranks of climbing roses. 'Awakening' is a sport of 'New Dawn' that produces fragrant, old fashioned, 3 1/2" fully quartered blooms of soft, silvery pink with a fresh/sweet fragrance on a continual blooming climber with glossy mid-green foliage. 30+\ Double Delight
Hybrid Tea Roses Beautiful double blooms with an eye-catching color combination and fantastic fragrance. The large, somewhat informal, old-fashioned, 24-30 petals are of rich, creamy white edged strawberry red. Heritage
David Austin® English Roses A near perfect rose. Its classically shaped, old-fashioned rose blooms are a lovely, soft pink, which is perfect for this delicate, cup-shaped beauty. One of the most outstanding of the English Roses. Its medium sized 3 1/2" blooms (petals 30) are true perfection in form and fragrance, which has a strong heady fragrance with a touch of lemon. A vigorous, bushy plant with few thorns. Excellent repeat blooming characteristics. Performs well in partial shade and makes a great cut flower. Mr. Lincoln
Hybrid Tea Roses A very well-known hybrid tea. Long pointed buds open into large, well-formed, long stemmed, fully double 4" blooms (petals 24+) of velvety, deep red. The velvety texture of the bloom is almost unbelievable. 'Mr. Lincoln' has outstandingly strong damask fragrance that seduces the senses. A vigorous, tall, upright continual blooming bush with dark green foliage. Makes a good cut flower. Brandy Hybrid Tea Roses The most classic of roses in its color; richest, deep apricot, it will benefit from afternoon shading in hotter climates. A great exhibition rose with perfect form. A vigorous, bushy plant with large, deep green foliage. AARS winner in 1982. Petals 30, Bloom 5-6" Scentimental Shrub Roses 'Scentimental' is a breathtakingly beautiful striped rose whose color is burgundy-red swirled with creamy-white. The large, fully double 4" blooms (petals 40+) with old-fashioned appearance comes from having striped garden roses in its ancestry. The strong fragrance is sweet and spicy. Each petal is as unique as a snowflake. Some are burgundy splashed white, some more cream swirled with red. The flowers are perfect for potpourri. The continuous blooming plant is densely covered with disease-resistant dark green, leathery foliage and is of an excellent rounded shape. The Mayflower
David Austin® English Roses David Austin believes 'The Mayflower' represents an important breakthrough in English Roses. A small continually blooming shrub bearing charming, medium size typically old rose 3" flowers (petals 35+) of deep rose pink. It has a strong, old rose fragrance. Variegata Di Bologna
Old Garden Roses
Unusual Color Roses
Bourbons Large, cupped 5" flowers (petals 60+) of creamy white cleanly striped with purple crimson. One of the most striking of the striped roses providing a fantastic display and only a few later blooms. A strong upright repeat blooming bush that will benefit from training up a support (like a pillar rose) to make it a standout in the garden Mme Alfred CarriérOld Garden Roses Noisettes One of the most fragrant of roses. Clusters of large, globular, cupped 3 1/2" flowers (petals 40+) of pale, pearl-pink, aging to cream on a strong plant with attractive foliage. A most outstanding pillar rose. More hardy than other Noisettes. We have reports of it doing very well in Philadelphia. A wonderful repeat blooming climber. Chapter 14Top 10 Best Heat Tolerant Roses to Grow There may be no more beloved and widely grown flower than the rose. In cultivation around the world and over many centuries, its popularity endures. Today's gardeners can enjoy some magnificent selections-roses of great beauty and haunting fragrance, borne on handsome, disease-resistant plants. Here are some of the best of the best. Enjoy! Double DelightThough this award-winning multicolored rose has been around for decades, its popularity shows no signs of waning. Everyone adores its distinctive-looking flowers-ruby-red buds unfurl to creamy pink; fully open ones are strawberry red and buttery yellow. The rich, spicy fragrance is a fair match. One bloom per a long, strong stem makes 'Double Delight' an irresistible choice for homegrown bouquets. · Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid. · Type: Hybrid Tea. · Hardiness: Zones 6-9. · Bloom Time: All summer. · Size: 3 to 4 feet high and 2 to 4 feet wide. · Flowers: Unique blend of red, pink and cream. · Flower Size: 5 1/2 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun. Growing Advice: This spectacular bush, with its magnificent flowers and fragrance, deserves a spot where it can be savored-beside a patio or desk, next to a porch, in front of the house. Note that it is vulnerable to mildew in cool, damp climates, but terrific elsewhere. Ballerina Despite their small size, the five-petal flowers of this long-time favorite make a big impression. They're carried in profuse clusters along gracefully arching, virtually thorn-free stems. The color is memorable, too-dark pink on the petal edges, shading to lighter pink and then to white toward the centers. The blooms radiate a soft, musky fragrance. The handsome plant grows densely and doesn't get large or unwieldy. · Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid. · Type: Shrub, Hybrid Musk. · Hardiness: Zones 6 to 9. · Bloom Time: Midsummer (repeats). · Size: 3 to 5 feet high and wide. · Flowers: Pink with white centers. · Flower Size: 2 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun to light shade. Growing Advice: Use as a focal point and grow out in the open. Looks nice draped over a low fence, or plant a row for an informal, pretty hedge. Carefree Wonder This cold-hardy beauty won top honors back in 1990 and continues to dazzle novice gardeners and rose aficionados alike. It has excellent disease resistance, is cloaked in bright green foliage, and abounds with wonderful blossoms all season. The petals are hot pink etched or "hand-painted" in darker pink, creamy on the undersides, and white in the very centers. The scent is soft and fruity. · Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid. · Type: Shrub, Griffith Buck Shrub. · Hardiness: Zones 4 to 8. · Bloom Time: Midsummer (repeats). · Size: 4 to 5 or 6 feet high and wide. · Flowers: Pink. · Flower Size: 4 to 5 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun. Growing Advice: Carefree Wonder is easy to grow in any sunny spot and requires little maintenance. So it's ideal for informal shrub borders or for tucking into an informal, cottage-garden scheme where you need reliable color and a tough plant. Golden Celebration This rose is considered by many to be the finest yellow-flowered Austin rose. Like all Austins, the blossoms are dense with ruffled petals like an old-fashioned rose, and it wafts a seductive, honey-sweet scent. But it also exhibits the best qualities of modern roses, namely repeat-blooming and a sturdy constitution. · Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid. · Type: David Austin, English Shrub. · Hardiness: Zones 6 to 9. · Bloom Time: Midsummer, repeats. · Size: 4 to 5 feet tall and wide. · Flowers: Golden yellow. · Flower Size: 5 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun. Growing Advice: A rose this attractive deserves a prominent spot in any sunny garden. It is equally at home in an informal flowerbed or in a more elegant, manicured garden setting. Grow it in the company of purple-hued flowers for elegant contrast. Iceberg Introduced back in 1958, this superb, easy-going rose remains widely grown and much loved. It's easily managed and always generous with its blooms. And they are indeed sensational-big, pure white, and sweetly scented. Individual sprays can have up to 12 flowers, which makes for a dramatic show in the garden or a vase. · Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid · Type: Floribunda. · Hardiness: Zones 6 to 8. · Bloom Time: Midsummer, repeats. · Size: 3 to 4 feet high and wide. · Flowers: White. · Flower Size: 3 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun, but protection from blazing mid-day heat is appreciated. Growing Advice: Ideal for mass plantings and hedges, or draping over low fences and rock walls. If you prune it low, the plant will remain in bounds and produce lots of flowers on long cutting stems. If you let it ramble, you'll still get a great show but on shorter stems. Knock Out An outstanding shrub rose, aptly named Knock Out has been a great success story from the moment it appeared. It has it all-great flowers, wonderful vigor, remarkable disease-resistance, and valuable cold-hardiness. The All-America Rose Selections honored it upon its debut in 2000 and it has won awards in Europe as well. Especially notable is the robust, glossy foliage, seemingly impervious to blackspot. ·
Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid. · Type: Shrub. · Hardiness: Zones 4 and 5 to 8. · Bloom Time: All summer. · Size: 3 feet high and wide. · Flowers: Ruby red. · Flower Size: 3 to 3 1/2 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun. Growing Advice: A bright and vivacious plant, it deserves a spot of honor in a bright and sunny location. The bold color is a scene-stealer and not easy to match, so pick companion plants that flatter it, such as white or yellow roses or perennials. New Dawn This might be one of the prettiest climbers of all time! Its abundant, fluffy pink flowers gradually age to cream without losing their silky texture. And the sweet scent is reminiscent of ripe peaches. Unlike the flowers of some climbers, these beauties appear along the length of the long, pliable stems. It is easy to train, but look out for its big, sharp thorns. · Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid. · Type: Climber. · Hardiness: Zones 6 to 8. · Bloom Time: All summer. · Size: 12 to 20 feet high. · Flowers: Pink. · Flower Size: 3 to 31/2 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun, tolerates some light shade. Growing Advice: A beautiful choice for a substantial arch or pergola, a tall wooden fence, a sturdy trellis, or draping over a front porch. Rugosa Rose Rugosa roses are durable, rather coarse-looking bushes, prized for their cold-hardiness and resilience, and a sentimental favorite for their pretty, spicily fragrant single-form blossoms. These appear in midsummer and continue well into fall. The colorful hips that follow prolong the season of interest, unless hungry birds eat them all. · Botanical Name: Rosa rugosa. · Type: Rugosa, Shrub. · Hardiness: Zones 4 or 5 to 8. · Bloom Time: Midsummer, repeats. · Size: 4 to 5 feet tall and wide. · Flowers: White, pink, red, and red-purple. · Flower Size: 3 to 4 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun. Growing Advice: Grow rugosas as a "living fence" or boundary plant, or in poor or sandy soil where other rose bushes would struggle. Prize Picks: Blanc Double de Coubert is a beautiful, ruffly "double" white. Red Linda Campbell is valued for its heat tolerance. Hansa is a gorgeous maroon variety. Sun Sprinkles A good yellow rose is always welcome, and this excellent miniature is a top-quality choice anywhere you want its bright and jaunty presence. It is prolific, disease-resistant, and of manageable size, plus the little blooms waft a sweet and spicy aroma. No wonder the All-America Rose Selections accorded its top award to Sun Sprinkles in 2000. Grow this one in complete confidence! · Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid. · Type: Miniature. · Hardiness: Zones 5 or 6 to 8. · Bloom Time: All summer. · Size: 18 to 24 inches. · Flowers: Yellow. · Flower Size: 2 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun. Growing Advice: A great candidate for a container, on its own or joined by other brightly colored flowers such as blue or purple annuals. Its smaller stature and rounded growth habit also allow it to fit into a mixed flower border, where it will provide cheery, reliable color throughout the summer months. The Fairy Unique among shrub roses, The Fairy is a shorter plant with a sprawling habit. All summer long, it billows with little blossoms. Though small, these are plush with petals and very pretty, but unscented. It starts blooming a little later than other roses, but makes up lost time with its incredible output. · Botanical Name: Rosa hybrid. · Type: Shrub, Polyantha. · Hardiness: Zones 4 to 9. · Bloom Time: Midsummer, repeats. · Size: 2 to 3 feet high, 3 to 4 feet wide. · Flowers: Pink. · Flower Size: 11/2 to 2 inches. · Light Needs: Full sun to light shade. Growing Advice: Its casual habit and heavy flowering habit make it a great candidate for informal, cottage-garden settings and perennial borders. Massed in a sunny area or embankment, it makes a nice groundcover. It can also be displayed in a large pot or tub. Chapter 15How to Plant Bare Root Roses January is typically the coldest month in the Southwest, but if you don't mind the chill, there's plenty to do indoors and out in the garden. Southwest gardens are experiencing weather in the low to mid 60’s and the big box stores have bare root roses on the shelves. Stoke your passion for roses with award-winning selections from the 1970s to 2000s. I found some of the roses I had listed on my “to-buy list” Angel Face, Queen Elizabeth, Gold Medallion, Paradise and Mr. Lincoln. I also snared a healthy Knockout Rose in a standard. You can’t beat the price, all under $6. If you are on a budget this is the way to purchase roses and get started on that rose garden you have been procrastinating about. Another idea for Northern gardeners who fear the freezing weather, buy the bare root roses and enjoy them for the season and replant each spring, at that economical price. Test Garden Tip: Wondering if you're planting something too early outdoors? Watch inventory at local garden centers. When they stock a plant, it's usually the right time for planting. Ask if you're unsure.
Get Planting It's the ideal time for planting! Getting bare-root woody plants into the ground now means they'll be established before hot, dry winds arrive. Prepare a new vegetable garden area by loosening soil 8 to 12 inches deep with a digging fork or rototiller. Add compost to existing vegetable beds.
Proper care of bare roots will lead to healthier roses. You can buy bare roots (dormant plants sold and shipped without soil around their roots), and plant them in late winter in warm climates or early spring in cold climates. If you buy potted plants that have already commenced growing, plant them as you would any garden plant, anytime from spring through early fall. Tips for Planting Bare-Root Roses If bare roots arrive before you prepare the planting hole or the ground thaws, it's important to protect them until you can get them in the ground. As long as the roots stay moist, they'll be fine for a day or two. Open any plastic wrapping around bare roots, and refresh roots in a bucket of water if you will plant them within 12 hours. Otherwise, sprinkle roots with water and leave them wrapped in plastic for a day or two. If you're looking at a longer period before you plant, it's best to heel them in a bare spot or ground. Stand bare roots up in a bucket, or lay them at a 45-degree angle in a shallow, shaded trench. If the ground is still frozen, plant the roots in a large pot. Either way, cover the roots and top third of the plant with soil, compost, or peat moss. Water as often as necessary to keep the roots moist. Then plant as early as possible to avoid damaging new roots and top growth. How to Plant Bare-Root Roses Remember to soak roots in water before planting, and add compost to your rose's new home. Give your roses the right environment for growth. Select a location where they'll receive at least six hours of sun. The site should be permanent, away from competing trees and shrubs. Don't expect a plant to live in the same spot where another rose died. Before planting bare-root roses, soak roots in a bucket of water for at least two hours (no longer than 12 hours). Prune roots that are broken, injured, or too long. Dig a hole 12-18 inches deep and 2 feet wide, keeping the backfill close. Add two shovelfuls of composted manure or compost to the hole then mix it into the bottom soil. Set the plant in the hole and spread the roots evenly around it. Position the plant so that the bud union (a swelling at the base of a grafted plant where the new plant was grown on the rootstock) is 1 inch above the soil surface in warm climates or 1 inch below the surface in cold climates. Use your shovel handle as a guide. Own-root roses differ from grafted or budded stock. Grown from cuttings, they develop their own root systems and don't have a knobby bud union. Simply plant them about 1 inch deeper than they were planted in their pot. Add water to the hole to settle the soil. Backfill the planting hole two-thirds full, add water, then allow it to drain. This helps settle the soil. Fill the hole with more soil; water again. Promote a healthy rose by pruning dead branches. Prune new roses back by one-third to concentrate the plant's energy in growing roots; remove any dead or broken wood to foster strong canes. When planting container-grown roses, keep pruning to a minimum at planting time. Wait several weeks until leaves develop and canes resume growing; then feed. Chapter 16Heirloom Roses for Today’s Garden What is an ‘Heirloom Rose’? Another appropriate name for an heirloom rose is “antique” or “old garden” roses, and this includes all roses that existed before 1867.
All classes of roses in existence before that time were deemed ‘old garden roses’ or ‘heirlooms’. Hence new classes were called modern roses. When I grew up in the south we called them "Grandmother Roses" No matter what name you call them these old variety roses to me are the best and hardiest. Unfortunately, they have been replaced by newer Hybrid and Floribunda roses. There is nothing wrong with the newer varieties, but if you were to grow them side by side you would choose the older and more fragrant heirloom rose. The actual heirloom varieties are hard to pinpoint and fall into several categories; Albas, Centifolias, Damasks, Gallicas and Moss roses. These antique varieties are as simple to grow as the modern roses we find today. Admired for their fragrance and large beautiful blooms every garden should have a few. Tea Rose General Schabilkine Cardinal de Richelieu (Parmentier, 1847) Gallicas are the oldest of the old garden roses, having been grown by the Greeks and Romans. Gallicas' have been involved in the development of all four other classes of ‘old garden roses’ and have influenced to at least some small degree nearly all garden roses down to the present. Galicia blooms come in some of the darkest, deepest purple of all roses their great colors range from shades of pink, reds, purples and even crimson- red with stripes. The single, double or semi-double blooms held either singly or in threes are mostly very fragrant. These roses can be grown in poor, even gravelly soil and demand a minimum of attention. Portland Damask Rose 'Rose de Rescht' The Damaskrose dates back to Biblical times. DA roses are once bloomers, but more than make up for this deficit by their extraordinarily fragrant, perfume-like rose. Damasks have a mixed parentage originating from a natural hybrid between the Gallica rose and a wild species rose. Damasks are very cold hardy as some can be grown in zone 4. They are very thorny and have a rather lax and arching growth habit reaching three to seven feet tall. They require good fertile soil if they are to look their best. Konigin Von Danemark (1826) Albas are the most elegant of all old roses with tall, slender upright growth producing flowers of blush pink or white with charming beauty set against the perfect background of grey-green foliage. Abbas are very hardy and thrive under difficult conditions, even partial shade. Alba roses have a strong, rich perfume that gives them a special appeal in the garden and as cut flowers. Cold hardy in zones 3-9. Fantin Latour (1836) Centifolias are also known as ‘Cabbage Roses’ because of the size and shape of their blooms, along with many petals as the name suggests, up to 100 or more. They are the classic old garden roses often reproduced in artists’ prints popular today. Centifolias have lax, open, rather lanky growth with a mixture of large and small thorns. The leaves are large, rounded and broadly toothed while the flowers tend to be heavy and globular. They benefit from support to stop them bending too near the ground. They are once blooming, very fragrant and very winter hardy. Chapeau de Napoleon (1826) The Moss Roses are the roses of Victorian England. Moss Roses are actually Centifolias and Damasks that have developed a distinctive, fragrant moss-like growth on the sepals that has the smell of pine. The mossing adds great elegance to the flowers and is a result of a sport, or fault in the plant. The majority of Moss Roses was bred over a short period of time, from approximately 1850 to 1870. Moss Roses have inherited the strong fragrance of their Centifolia ancestors and pruning should be as recommended for the Centifolias. Moss roses come in almost all colors and some varieties are repeat blooming. Variegata di Bologna (1826) Bourbon roses originated on the Île Bourbon (now called Réunion) off the coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. They are believed to be the result of a cross between the Autumn Damask and the 'Old Blush' China rose, both of which were frequently used as hedging materials on the island.They are once bloomers that grow on vigorous, frequently semi-climbing shrubs with glossy foliage and purple-tinted canes. Buff Beauty (1896) The Hybrid Musk group was mainly developed by Rev. Joseph Pemberton, a British rosarian, in the first decades of the 20th century, based upon 'Aglaia', a 1896 cross by Peter Lambert. Hybrid musks are disease-resistant, repeat flowering and generally cluster-flowered, with a strong, characteristic "musk" scent. The stems tend to be lax and arching, with limited thorns.This is among my favorite Heirloom roses and I always have Buff Beauty and Cornelia somewhere in my garden. They grow the hardiest and bloom continuously. Madame Alfred Carriere (1875) The first Noisette rose was raised as a hybrid seedling by a South Carolina rice planter named John Champneys. Champneys sent seedlings of his rose (called 'Champneys' Pink Cluster') to his gardening friend, Philippe Noisette, who in turn sent plants to his brother Louis in Paris, who then introduced 'Blush Noisette' in 1817. The first Noisettes were small-blossomed, fairly winter-hardy climbers, but later infusions of Tea rose genes created a Tea-Noisette subclass with larger flowers, smaller clusters, and considerably reduced winter hardiness. Reine Des Violettes (1838) Hybrid Perpetuals, the dominant class of roses in Victorian England, (a misleading translation of hybrides remontants, 'reblooming hybrids') emerged in 1838 as the first roses which successfully combined Asian remontancy (repeat blooming) with the old European lineages. They became the most popular garden and florist roses of northern Europe at the time, as the tender tea roses would not thrive in cold climates, and the Hybrid Perpetuals' very large blooms were well-suited to the new phenomenon of competitive exhibitions. The "perpetual" in the name hints at repeat-flowering, but many varieties of this class had poor re-flowering habits; the tendency was for a massive spring bloom, followed by either scattered summer flowering, a smaller autumn burst, or sometimes nothing at all until next spring.